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I used to be a car mechanic for a Ford main dealer in the UK.

We had a customer bring a car in with a seized engine, trying to get the repair under warranty. As I remember, the car had about 38,000 miles on it, the customer had brought the car from new.

When we checked the engine, we removed the sump and found the oil had turned into a tar like substance. We spoke to the customer and asked him when and where he had his servicing done, as we had no record of it. It turned out that the customer had never had the car serviced from the day he picked it up.

After some careful questioning, the customer revealed that when he picked up the car the salesman never said anything about the car required servicing, so he assumed it didn’t need servicing. Warranty declined to pay for the replacement engine on the grounds that the engine wasn’t faulty. The customer payed for the new engine, with a heavy discount on both parts and labour as a good will gesture.

So to answer your question, in that case about 38,000 miles.

Tyler Bergman
Tyler Bergman, works at Business Owner, Entrepreneur

A good friend of mine works as a fraud investigator for an insurance company, and was doing an investigation which took him to the large Houston Ferarri dealership. There, he was interviewing the owner (about the theft of a vehicle from the lot by an employee). The owner of the dealership (or at least the general manager), had some interesting pointers about whether it was worth it to own the vehicle.

He said that “Many many people could save or finance enough money to buy a Ferrari. But most people who do were not wealthy enough to “own” a Ferrari.”

“You see,” he said, “buying the car in the first place is actually the easy part. The cost to own one of these things is what breaks your budget. Let me give you a few examples: The average insurance company will not insure a car this high end. It is simply not worth the heightened risk of theft, and of accidents for them to insure it. So you must then go to a specialty insurance company and buy a separate policy. These are much more expensive. Need to get an oil change? Are you going to take your $200,000 car to Jiffy Lube? Nope. You must bring it to the dealership. Don’t worry, our oil change only costs $1000, we recommend one every 3000 miles, but our service is excellent! Did you lose your keys? No problem, we will need to order a replacement set from Italy. Did you get a scratch on the door? Just take your Ferrari to Joe’s Body Shop! Nope. You will need to bring it to us. We will get you a new door, and specially matched paint… from Italy.”

So he was making the point that when you have a high end vehicle like this, the maintenance cost is also relatively high. You can’t just keep it in your normal garage, put in normal gas etc… you are going to pay a lot more for the common things as well.

Matt Wasserman
Matt Wasserman, Top Writer 2014, 2015, 2017, 2018

It’s actually pretty cool, now that Bernie is introducing rules that make F1 engineering relevant to the real world again.

So you have a 1.6 liter V6 making (supposedly) 1,000 horsepower. That’s a specific output of 625 horsepower per liter. The nastiest, most exotic supercars might make 200HP/liter. And the F1 engine has to do it on 100Kg of fuel per hour, which is better fuel efficiency than any supercar is going to give you. And they are doing it using something that at least vaguely resembles gasoline instead of $200 a gallon cocktails of volatiles that a real car couldn’t even run on. How are they doing that?

It isn’t by having absurdly high operating speeds. The rules limit them to 15,000RPM, but the practical limit used by everyone is about 12,000 because each driver only gets 5 engines per season before draconian grid penalties kick in. And running the engine to 19,000RPM would make it very difficult to meet the fuel efficiency requirements. 12,000 is still about 1/3 higher than street cars, but not ridiculously high.

Fuel is power. To make more power, you have to either have more fuel (which is impossible now) or you have to burn more of the fuel you have. That’s what they are doing. F1 engines are achieving close to 50% thermal efficiency, when the best street car engines are only getting about 35%. And the fuel, while it does somewhat resemble gasoline, has a higher energy density than pump gas. A larger percentage of more energy per kilo of fuel in an engine that only has to run for about 1,000 miles or so is what gets you to 600HP/liter.

So how do they do that? The ability to build an engine that costs roughly as much as a Veyron makes many things possible. Extremely tight tolerances. Exotic materials that can live with higher compression ratios. It’s a racing engine, so it doesn’t need to make power below 6,000 or 8,000RPM. A lot of what they do isn’t applicable anywhere but F1.

But the real breakthroughs are applicable everywhere, so far as ICE engines are still relevant to future street cars. First, they’ve made strides in terms of creating a homogenous fuel/air mixture in the combustion chamber. The more evenly the fuel is dispersed throughout the air the more complete your combustion and the more power you get every time the engine fires. And they’ve completely rethought the combustion process. Instead of having a spark plug in the combustion chamber that ignites the entire fuel/air mixture, the spark plug is located in a pre-chamber and ignites about 3% of the mixture. That creates a jet of flame that enters the combustion chamber and ignites the remaining 97%. The result is 7 - 8% more thermal efficiency, about a 20% improvement. Roughly as much as the previous 50 years of ICE development achieved.

As for acceleration, the F1 car has about a third more power than a Laferrari and weighs about 2,000 pounds less. Even if it had the same power as the street car it would be a lot quicker.


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At age 48 I decided that I’d try a regime of pushups every morning. I had never done them before, but one of the guys at work that was in great shape told me he was doing at least 50 each morning. I told him I wish I could do that and he said; “you can. Just start-out slow and work your way up.” So I decided to try. I was in terrible shape at the time and I smoked 1 1/2 packs/day. When I began I could barely do ten. After a few weeks I was doing 50. After a few months I was able to do 100. I made a pact with myself to do them very other day instead of daily. After about six months I started doing 3 sets every other morning. So I would do 100 1st set, 90 2nd set and 90 3rd set. I would take a few minutes rest between sets. Eventually I would try to insure I was doing at least 300 every other morning. Sometimes as many as 400. I kept telling myself that I would never have believed that I could do this. To me, it was almost surreal. I guess, because I was never really in very good shape before this. I went on a diet and tried to keep my weight down and did a handful of situps occasionally. I began to feel great Physiologically and physically. The guys at work were telling me that I looked really fit. I felt good and loved the definition in my arms, pecks, and especially my triceps. I kept smoking, but felt so much better about myself. The great thing was that I could do these exercises at home, in a hotel or wherever I was. When I hit the age of 60, the grinding I was hearing and feeling in my right shoulder started to hurt a lot. Eventually, it hurt so much that I had to cut back on the pushups. Eventually I could only barely use my right arm and had to go to the orthopedic doctor. Turns-out that I had bone spurs and ended up needing a shoulder replacement. At about the age of 62 my pushup days were over.

If I had it to do over again, not sure what I’d change, if any thing. Perhaps only do 100 instead of 300, but I don’t know if that would have mattered. In the end, if I had it to do over again I’d probably still do the pushups, but maybe a little differently. If there is one take that I would want anyone to take from this it would be; You can do anything you put your mind to. I proved it to myself. What a self-confidence booster. As an addicted smoker, it really helped to offset that self loathing I felt about my addiction. When other guys tell you that you look like you take really good care of yourself, what better feeling is there than that? It happened many times.


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For more than 30 year I was always proud of my braking abilities. My stops were so smooth you could hold a full uncovered cup of coffee without spilling a single drop.

I did this by very softly applying the brakes, then gradually increasing pressure.

The only consistent effect to this was my rotors would warp over time, such that the front end would shake when I pressed firmly on the brakes. I always attributed this to cheap or faulty rotors or pads or a front end out of alignment.

This changed when I lost my office job and began training as a tractor trailer driver. During training they taught us the proper way to brake.

Controlled braking: apply brakes firmly to stop or slow down in a timely manner.

Stab braking: apply brakes as hard as possible to quickly slow down.

For a heavy tractor trailer going downhill that keeps picking up speed, you would apply the stabbing motion: press the brakes as hard as possible until you’re at target speed then release. Repeat when 5 miles an hour above your target speed.

In a heavy tractor trailer, applying the brakes gradually over a longer distance will cause them to overheat and then stop working or catch fire. In a car doing the same thing will cause the rotors to warp, making it seem like you need a front end wheel alignment.

You’d be amazed how many wheel alignments I paid for, thinking I was ripped off because the front end continued to shake when I applied the brakes.

Now, I use stabbing or controlled braking in my car or truck, and have never had any more rotors warp or front end shaking. The downside to not braking gradually over a long distance: need a lid on my coffe cup.

My personal preference? I’d rather brake gradually over a longer distance in my car. In a truck you have no choice, it’s either stabbing or controlled braking.

If I could afford to change my pads and rotors more often I would go back to gradual braking. I enjoy drinking coffee in a cup without a lid and prefer a gradual and very smooth stop.


Thank you everyone for the upvotes and your feedback!

Carsten Neubert perfectly verbalized the ideal method for braking.

Some of you suggested downshifting when going downhill as a way of slowing down. While this may work in a car, it should never be done in a heavily loaded truck going fast. When you disengage the clutch you’ll immediately lose whatever engine braking you had, causing the engine rpm to jump and making it almost impossible to get back into gear. What they teach is to use the same gear going down that was used going up the hill. The truck may not fly going downhill but you won’t lose control either.

A few explained the damage done to the pads and rotors from consistently pressing softly on the brakes. Material from the pads tend to build up on the rotors, causing your braking system to lose effectiveness and some front end vibration. A good hard brake every now and then helps prevent this.

Some also mentioned improper torquing of the lug nuts can cause the rotors to warp. This will cause the front end to vibrate, making it seem like a front end alignment is needed.

All in all, a combination of the two, hard and soft braking, with intervals of no braking in between seems to work best. Riding the brakes regardless of how hard or soft, that is keeping your foot on the brakes for an extended period of time so they don’t get a chance to cool, seems to do the most damage.

This update is courtesy of Ashley DeRose, a trained automotive technician:

Something you might want to change or add is that rotors don't really "warp" because for rotors to warp they would have to get very close to the melting point of that specific metal and then cool down very suddenly. Rotors however do have lateral run-out, and this is a completely different idea while producing the same effect. Lateral run-out can be compensated for when using an on-car brake lathe. When the run-out is compensated for and then the lathe cuts the rotors the vibration or shaking in pedal or the whole vehicle will go away. I should add.. If you feel the vibration or shaking in the pedal then you have a front brakes issue. If you feel it in the whole car it's an issue with the rear brakes.

Pete Green
Pete Green, engineer, auto enthusiast

A few reasons come to mind for me, an american commuter who owns both diesel and gas vehicles.

  1. Winter. Diesel sucks in the winter. It will freeze solid if you don’t pour expensive additives in each time you fill your tank. You often have to plug in your block heater overnight, racking up the electricity bill. Most of the US has far more severe winters than most of the rest of the world.
  2. Cost of fuel. Diesel is more expensive than gasoline here, so for a car* the added mpg’s come out as a wash.
  3. Cost of maintenance. Generally more expensive for parts and labor than gasoline cars are.
  4. Cost of purchase. A diesel version of a car is usually an optional upgrade that costs significantly more.

*For pickup trucks doing heavy towing, diesel fuel mileage is a lot better than their gas counterparts, which is why big diesel pickups are popular here. For passenger cars it’s not enough of a difference to be worth it.

Alan Clayson
Alan Clayson, Mechanic (1980-present)

If you take a 1.2l engine out of a vehicle and install a 2l engine in its place without changing the gearbox rear axle or tires it will do exactly the same speed.

The difference is it will accelerate much faster because it has more power.

Be warned if you do this upgrade the brakes. A friend and i took a 650cc engine and trans out of a mini and put a 1300 engine and trans in its place without upgrading the brakes. Went like a banshee accelerating. top speed bent the needle on the speedo. We couldnt slow it down before we hit the roundabout (traffic circle). Took a huge scoop out of one side flew airbourne over the far side and didnt land till we were 20ft in the field. Total distance about 60ft. Needless to say the car was wrecked. We had bruises from the seatbelts for two weeks and the smiles didnt leave our faces for a month.

Joe Shelton
Joe Shelton, Author, Pilot (Comm. MEL/SEL/MES/SES, Inst), Aircraft Owner

As an airline passenger, you notice that the plane is taxiing onto the runway for takeoff and hasn't lowered the flaps. What should you do?

With most airliners, and, in fact, most aircraft, there is a take-off flap configuration.

Most aircraft, airliners included, taxi onto the runway with the aircraft fully configured for take-off and departure. So when they taxi onto the runway take-off flaps should already be set.

The good news is that airline pilots are professionals that use checklists religiously and it is highly UNLIKELY that they will begin the take-off run without having the aircraft configured correctly.

But it has happened that aircraft have tried to take-off without take-off flaps and in most cases the only issue is a longer take-off roll. However, all current transport category aircraft require take-off flaps to be set in order to lift off.

In any event, unless you see something that is obviously critical (e.g. a fire), there really isn’t much you can do if the aircraft is actually taxiing onto the runway. Pressing the Call Button probably won’t elicit a response from the cabin crew until after take-off. So your alternative is yelling, but I’d recommend against that unless it is something really obvious like a fire.

HOWEVER, any time you do see something that you question you have the right to bring it to the crew’s attention.

Some years ago I was on a British Airways flight from LHR to SFO and one of the engine’s starters failed. Rather than deplaning passengers, they moved the 747 into a warm hangar while mechanics replaced the starter.

It was a cold winter day and while the aircraft was sitting in the warmer hangar I noticed that there was fuel almost pouring out of a vent on the wing. So I pushed the call button, told the flight attendant what I observed, and she said that it wasn’t a problem. Belying her confident pronouncement, the First Officer came nonchalantly walking down the aisle a minute or so later, bent down, and looked out my window. And then made a BEELINE back toward the cockpit and less than a minute later there were mechanics all over that area wiping up the spilled fuel.

Why did it spill?

The fuel expanded enough from being warmed in the hangar that it overflowed from a fuel tank vent.

The point being that if you see something that concerns you, call it to the cabin crew’s attention. You have the right and probably the responsibility!

EDIT: Keeping in mind the principle that as a passenger you have both the right and responsibility to raise any issues that concern you, I’ve learned that the issue of flaps not set correctly for take-off is resolved on all airliners by the “Take-off configuration warning system.” When the flight crew starts to add power for take-off if the aircraft isn’t configured correctly a warning horn will sound. Thanks, to my friend and 20+ year airline Captain Mike Jesch for this bit of knowledge

Will Perez Ronderos
Will Perez Ronderos, studied at TAFE NSW – Sydney Institute Ultimo

If you put water in a vehicle tyre then be prepared for all kind of vibrations.

In a past life I worked as tyre fitter. Once a customer came for a rotation and balance. The tyres kept giving me different readings in the balance machine. I kept moving the weights and every time it would be showing that it needed more weight in a different place of the rim.

I called the other guy in the workshop and after giving the tyres two spins in the machine he started laughing at me and told me to call the customer.

I did that and my colleague proceeded to break the bead in one of the tyres and water came out. He told me to do the same with all the other tyres. We had to get them off the rims, dry them with rags and refit them.

The customer had been topping the pressure at home with his compressor which he had never purged to get the condensation out. That was where the water was coming from. It wasn't much but just enough to cause vibrations at speed.

So no. You don't add water to the tyres of vehicles that will be used on highways or anything over 60 km/h.

Michael Kay
Michael Kay, Car and engine restoration experience.

Question: “What engine is nearly indestructible?”

I will give you two examples of “nearly indestructible” engines.

The first I will note is the Land Rover Series IIa four cylinder gasoline engine.

Which was installed in this stylish bit of English coachwork.

The Land Rover Series IIa gasoline engine was a four cylinder inline OHV chain driven cam pushrod petrol engine displacing 2286 cubic centimeters or 140 cubic inches. The engine was over-square with a 90.47 mm. bore and an 88.8 mm stroke. The crankshaft turned in five main bearings. Its compression ratio was either 7:1 or 8:1.

The Land Rover Series IIa 2.25 liter gas engine was as durable as an anvil. Why?

Well, to understand that you have to look at another Land Rover engine offering, the 2.25 liter Diesel. This engine had a bore of 90.49 mm and a stroke of 88.9 mm, i.e., a displacement and bore and stroke almost identical to that of the IIa gasoline engine. A bit of a strange coincidence, no? But the Diesel engine, being compression ignition, had a compression ratio of 23:1, that is 3-times the compression ratio of the petrol engine.

And that is the reason for the Land Rover IIa 2.25 petrol engine’s indestructibility. For the petrol engine was built on the same machine line as the Diesel and shared much of its architecture, features, and dimensions. But, although as robust as a Diesel the 2.25 petrol engine ran at a low compression ration and was significantly under stressed.

The low compression, especially in the 7:1 version, allowed the 2.25 petrol engine to run without pre-ignition on the marginal gasoline that was available in some of the colonial backwaters where the Land Rover was sold. And the excessively robust design tolerated abuse. In its advertising British Leyland, which built the Land Rover at the time, noted that one Land Rover IIa, in some backwater where normal lubricants were not available, actually was driven 700 miles using banana oil as a lubricant! I have visions of driving a Land Rover IIa across the Punjab surrounded by clouds of warm banana fumes wafting from the crankcase while pursued by crazed salivating baboons!

(I will note, for those masochists among Quora readers who have owned British cars with Lucas electrics, that those components were notoriously NOT durable.)

The second engine I will include in the “indestructible” category is that of the legendary Citroen 2CV.

The Citroen 2CV engine was a 2-cylinder opposed air cooled twin offered in displacements from 375 to 602 cubic centimeters and producing between 9 and 29 horsepower.

It powered this quirky bit of French automotive elegance.

This is the Citroen 2CV Sahara variant which had (I’m not kidding you.) TWO independent but simultaneously controlled 2-cylinder engines and transmissions. A Twin-4? Or is it a Bi-Twin? Well it was a great car for pessimists.

The Citroen 2CV air cooled flat twin was legendary for its durability. Why?

Well the 2CV twin was designed from the crankshaft up for durability and minimal maintenance. It was a minimalist engine, designed around the mantra that: “If it is not there, it cannot break.”

Of course, being air cooled, it lacked a radiator, or a water thermostat, or radiator hoses, or a fan belt. The cooling fan was driven directly off of the crankshaft. On the original models the generator was also driven off the shaft that powered the fan. Thus, there was no accessory belt to break.

But the concept of designing to eliminate problem prone parts went further than that. In that era cylinder head gasket failures were common. It is still a problem today, 70 years after the first post-war Citroen 2CV was sold. The 2CV engine solved this by eliminating cylinder head gaskets! On the 2CV the cylinder barrels and the heads were precision machined and lapped to fit with a gas tight seal without the need for gaskets. Moreover, as Ian Hunt reminded me, you did not have distributor problems on a 2CV. It did not have one! It used a “wasted spark” ignition and simply fired both cylinders when they were near TDC on either the compression or exhaust stroke. Again, what is not there cannot break.

The same concept was used for the crankcase sections. Precision machining eliminated the need for gaskets. In some ways this minimalist concept was taken to absurd extremes. I drove a Citroen 2CV in which the windshield wipers (which were in perfect condition) would stop completely when I idled at an intersection in the rain. Why? Citroen had carried minimalism so far as to eliminate the windshield wiper motor entirely by driving the wipers with the same flexible shaft that drove the speedometer!

Quirky car. I could tell 2CV stories until I ran out of digital ink. But Citroen’s concept of minimalism resulted in an engine that would run forever anywhere from Antarctica to the Sahara with minimal attention on whatever fuel was available. It was truly an indestructible engine.

Kris Blue

I own a BMW with over 150,000 miles and still running.

My opinion on BMW is - You have to buy a BMW when -

  1. You are rich, don’t care about money, just go to a dealership for maintenance/repairs, pay whatever they ask for….or
  2. You are a good mechanic who can do the repairs yourself

If you are neither don’t buy a BMW - simply because the cost of maintenance, the price of parts and the cost of repairs that dealership tell you will make your life hell.

BMW after 50,000 miles will simply fail on several parts - AC will fail, water pump will fail, side mirrors act weird, spark plugs, ignition coil, rear shocks, valve cover, paint on side railings, battery, run-flat tires, Window glass sliding, oxygen sensors, brakes, sensors, angel eyes, head lights….all are bound to fail at some point very early. And the parts, repair costs are really expensive.

Other reasons are - if you walk into a individual mechanic shop, indy shop, pepboys..etc with a BMW they simply bump up the price of repair for the reason you have a BMW.

Agreed - Driving a BMW is fun.

But, If you want to have fun with a BMW, just lease a car and if you think the cost of maintenance of BMWs is at the same level as Honda / Toyota then you are screwed up.

Alexander Nerad
Alexander Nerad, Home Mechanic-Super frugal car owner- Son of an Auto Teacher

I’m partial to a few engines. I’m a point A to point B kind of guy. And it is likely I might build a sawmill or a generator from an engine I pull out of one of my cars in the next few years. So longevity and predictability are far more important to me than sexiness. Hence I love the engines from relatively boring cars.

Honda F22

This is the engine from 1991–1997 honda accords. It can be modified widely and still runs for far longer than the rest of the car. I like the F22A-6 with it’s bigger oil pan and more aggressive tune, it feels like a small V-6 when it’s time to pass on the highway.

Jeep 4.0 Liter in line 6

These engines routinely run great while the car falls apart around it. It’s got enough torque to do some towing and is simple enough for a normal human with basic tools to work on.

Mercedes Benz 300D Turbo Diesel Engine

These engines last hundreds and hundreds of thousands of miles. This engine would be great for a generator because it can be easily modified to take WVO or Waste Vegetable oil.

Those are my favorites. And I understand that none of them are sexy, they just last forever.

George Etteridge
George Etteridge, studies History at University of Essex (2021)

When the Macedonians, led by Alexander the Great’s father Philip, were conquering the surrounding area, they sent a message to the Spartans telling them that “You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city.” The message he got back from the Spartans was only one word.


Philip left them alone after that.

Another cool line was when the Earl of Sandwich tried to insult John Wilkes by telling him “Sir, I do not know whether you shall die on the gallows or of the pox”, to which Wilkes replied “That will depend on whether I embrace your Lordship’s morals or his mistresses”. The Earl of Sandwich needed an icepack after that.


I know it's a bit late but I have thought of a third. During Europe's final hurtle towards war in 1914, Sir Edward Grey, the British foreign secretary, was watching events unfold from his study, when he made one of the coolest but also saddest remarks in history.

“The lights are going out all over Europe. We shall not see them lit again in our lifetime”.

EDIT: Before you comment it, yes I already know about the “Nuts” quote. About 300 people have already commented it and it is getting really rather irritating. If you could therefore refrain from mentioning it, that would be appreciated, thank you!


Evan Lenkowsky
Evan Lenkowsky, studied Medicine and Healthcare at Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (2005)

When I was an intern, one of my “mentors” said to me very early on…”There are only THREE things expected of you as a physician. If you can abide by these THREE rules, you will be successful in your career endeavors medically speaking.

ONE: Never stop learning. Read all that you can. The minute you slow down is the minute you become a dinosaur. The new medical school graduates will keep you on your toes and if we as a profession are to succeed, you’ll need to have something to teach them.

TWO: Never ever lie. Not ever. If you don’t know something, say you don’t know. There’s no honor is dishonesty.

THREE: Never get sick.

It took me a while to fully appreciate this last one. At first I thought it just meant that there won’t be anybody to cover me if I was ill. That’s only part of it. I’ve come to find that this also points to how replaceable we are as tools of healing. All too often, we as physicians feel as though we should have more inherent value based largely on how much we work and how much we put into the “job” as it were. Ultimately we are all expendable.

To answer the question literally and directly, we(specialty somewhat dependent) are exposed to a lot more pathogens allowing our immune systems to develop a stronger resistance. But before that happens, we get sick a ton. I was sick for months during my pediatric ER rotations.

Yoni Zisblatt
Yoni Zisblatt, former Intern at Edmunds.com (2017)

Traditionally, Japanese cars have been bulletproof, specifically Hondas and Toyotas (and by extension, these companies’ luxury divisions: Acura and Lexus, respectively). These manufacturers don’t emphasize making their cars fast, flashy or fun but rather focus on making products that will last for the long run. Eminent automotive journalist Matt Farah is famous for his ‘Million Mile Lexus.’

However, the tricky thing is predicting which newer cars will last for a long time. Companies with poor reputations are striving to make their cars durable, while those with good reputations might not try so hard to maintain their good names. It’s difficult to guess which new cars on the market will last a long time.

Something to note:

If a car has a tiny engine that produces similar power figures to those of a big engine, it could very well be that such an engine is working under greater stress and pressure and might not last very long. For example, the small 2.9L engine in the Alfa Romeo Giulia/ Stelvio Quadrifolio models (the Giulia being my current dream car) makes more horsepower than the relatively larger 5.0L engine in the Ford Mustang. That being said, with new developments in engine technology, cars can produce tremendous amounts of horsepower and torque from relatively small engines reliably.

The Alfa:

The Ford:

Alec Cawley

The first motorway in the UK, the M1 (surprise) was built as a straight line for as much of its length as possible, as you suggest. But it was found that drivers effectively dozed off, not having to move a muscle for hours on end, and ended up running off the road, still staring blindly into nothing. So subsequent motorways were built with curves. Big, sweeping curves. But humans, unlike computers, do not enjoy sitting locked in the same position for a long time. The M1 is still disliked for its monotony.


Yes, I “take” testosterone. I used to get a shot every two weeks, but it was bothersome having to see the doctor so often and the effect would wear off before two weeks had passed. I have never used any over-the-counter or mail order forms of testosterone supplements. My urologists said they are inefficient at best and fraudulent at worst.

The doctor encouraged me to try testopel, which is a slow-release pellet impasnt that is positioned under the skin of the back. My dosage is six pellets and their effect lasts about four months. This provides a consistent level of the hormone over time.

Maintaining a proper “T” level is important for several health reasons other than the obvious.

  • Testosterone may fight depression. ...
  • Testosterone decreases body fat. ...
  • Testosterone increases muscle mass. ...
  • Testosterone may strengthen your heart. ...
  • Testosterone strengthens bones. ...
  • Testosterone increases libido and improves erections.

More items...

Ian York
Ian York, Virologist, immunologist, biologist
In general, it's very hard to cure viruses without help from the host's immune system.  There are not a lot of antiviral drugs out there, and what there are don't work very well; most of them aim at slowing viral replication, to give the immune system a better chance at eliminating the infection.

Why is this? Very simplified, antiviral and antibacterial drugs have the same goal -- to kill the pathogen without killing the host. That means they try to key in on some unique feature of the pathogen, that the host doesn't have.

But viruses replicate inside the host cell. That means that much of their biochemistry is host biochemistry.  In comparison, bacteria are free-standing organisms (this is simplified, of course) that have their own unique biochemical and cellular characteristics.  There are just more targets for antibacterial drugs than for antiviral drugs.

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